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ITASCA PFC2D 3.10.234

(Particle Flow Code in 2 Dimensions; Particle Flow Code in 3 Dimensions) are programs for modeling the movement and interaction of assemblies of arbitrarily-sized circular (2D) or spherical (3D) particles. The particles are rigid but deform locally at contact points using a soft contact approach, in which finite normal and shear stiffnesses are taken to represent measurable contact stiffnesses.The particles may represent individual grains in a granular material or they may be bonded together to represent a solid material, in which case, fracturing occurs via progressive bond breakage. Solution by the distinct-element method allows dynamic stress waves to propagate through the particle assembly, which may exhibit slip or separation, with unlimited displacement, under the action of applied loading. Bonded assemblies exhibit complex macroscopic behaviors such as strain softening, dilation, and fracture that arise from extensive microcracking.PFC2D and PFC3D are ideal research tools, because they provide a powerful and flexible simulation environment within which one can create instances of different synthetic materials, subject them to general loadings, and observe their behavior. In addition to modeling bulk flow and mixing of materials, the codes are also well-suited to support fundamental studies of micro- and macrocracking in solid bodies including damage accumulation leading to fracture, dynamic breakage and seismic response.
Product:ITASCA PFC2D 3.10.234